May’s edition of BBKA News contained a short article about Varroa becoming a reportable disease in England with effect from 21 April. There was some discussion about this at Monday’s fireside chat which prompted Meridian member David Smith to emailed Ian Campbell, news editor of BBKA News.
David asked why the ‘Varroa Reportable in England’ article was published without any explanation or advice as to what beekeepers should do. David was very concerned that the Secretary of State would soon become a very busy person as every beekeeper in the land would be bombarding him!
David has kindly forwarded the very prompt reply from Ian which is reproduce here for your information.
From: Ian Campbell Date: 28 April 2021 at 10:23:52 BST To: David Smith
Subject:Re: Varroa Reportable in England
Thank you for your interest in the item ‘Varroa Rorportable in England’. The stories in BBKA News are written some way in advance to meet the printing deadline of the magazine.
The announcement of this new measure became public extremely close to that deadline, having not been officially announced by the NBU or Defra at that point. The implementation date however was rather close on 21.4.21. The legislation is limited to a yes/no answer on varroa infestation, whilst the level is of interest to beekeepers it is the existence or not that is now required to be declared.
Therefore in consultation with others in the editorial team of BBKA News it was decided that the partial factual information available to inform beekeepers was better than none in the May edition. This is a common practice on rolling news stories where information becomes available in stages. Subsequent editions and other media outlets, including BBKA social media, would be able to follow up on the story. Indeed hopefully the June edition of BBKA will contain details of the tick box scheme now in place on BeeBase for reporting. A scheme for non BeeBase users is as yet to be announced.
I hope this answers your query, Best wishes, Ian Campbell,News Editor,BBKA News
Bee Disease Insurance Limited (BDI) is currently undertaking a two year whole apiary shook swarm trail in partnership with the National Bee Unit (NBU).
Bee inspectors will now offer to beekeepers who find European Foul Brood (EFB) in a colony the opportunity to have their entire apiary shook swarmed and the combs destroyed with BDI providing compensation for all the combs not just those on the infected hives.
BDI and the NBU are hopeful that this trial will show a reduction in the re-occurrence of EFB and therefore point to a better way of dealing with this destructive disease. Further details of the trail can be found on the BDI website. BDI
The Asian hornet is a dangerous, non-native species which has the potential to wreak havoc in the UK. It hails from Southeast Asia and could never have arrived here naturally. Natural History Museum
The Asian hornet is already well-established in France (and across continental Europe) and has caused immense damage to local ecosystems. It is also a significant risk the human population. Evidence indicates it would cause similar destruction in the UK if it became established here.
The main concern for UK authorities is that the Asian hornet is a significant predator of bees. In France, it has consumed large numbers of the European honey bee and many lesser-known solitary and social bees. RSPB, Asian hornet
There has also been a number of reports indicating aggressive behaviour from Asian hornets, particularly where their nests have been disturbed and this is where the direct risk to humans lies.
The UK Government (the Department of the environment, food and rural affairs) and nature conservation organisations, including the British Beekeepers Association are concerned about the impact of Asian hornets on bees as these pollinating species are essential to a well-functioning ecosystem.
The first sighting of an Asian Hornet in the UK was in 2016. Since then, there has been twenty confirmed sightings and ten nests have been destroyed. The last confirmed sighting was in 2021 in Ascot, Berkshire where the nest was located and destroyed. UK Government
Learning from the dreadful experiences of our European neighbours, the UK response has been decisive and well organised. Whenever a sighting is confirmed, the National Bee Unit, supported by local volunteer beekeepers, locates and destroys the nest preventing the onward spread of this harmful pest.
What can I do about it?
There are three simple things all of us can do to help prevent the spread of the Asian hornet.
Learn how to identify it
Know how to report it
1. How to identify the Asian Hornet
It’s important not to confuse the Asian Hornet with the beneficial native Europeanhornet (Vespacrabro) which is the largest eusocial wasp native to Europe. The European hornet has a yellow head with a reddish brown thorax (the middle bit) and it’s abdomen has yellow and black stripes like it’s smaller cousin, the common wasp. It also has reddish-brown legs. Know your hornets
Although it may look a bit scary at 3.3cm long, the European hornet is the gardeners’ friend. It pollinates plants and preys on pests like black fly and aphids. What’s more, its much less likely to sting you than the common wasp. Don’t be put off by it’s deep droning buzz which some people find intimidating!
The Asian Hornet is smaller than our native hornet, typically (2.5cm long). It is almost entirely dark especially when viewed from above and has one noticeably orange segment near the bottom of its back. It’s most characteristic feature is it’s bright yellow legs which are very different to the dark legs of the European hornet.
Compare and contrast
2. Be aware
You don’t need to hide out with a pair of binoculars and a compendium of entomology but next time you’re in the garden with a cup of tea or gin and tonic, why not really study the bees, wasps and buzzy things you see there?
I’m certain when you do, you’ll be amazed by the beauty of the little creatures working around you and you’ll notice their fascinating behaviours too.
When we take the time to watch them, it’s easier to appreciate what they do for us and caring for them becomes second nature.
And should you happen to see a hornet, remember, she’s more scared of you than you are of her. Take time to watch her. Check out her black and yellow stripes and reddish-brown legs and hopefully, confirm in your own mind, that she’s a Vespa crabro. (European hornet)
3. Reporting an Asian hornet
The most important thing is to be prepared. With any luck, you’ll never need to report a sighting but it’s best be ready just in case.
If you are unlucky enough to see one, here’s what to do:
There’s an app called Asian hornet watch which can be downloaded free of charge to any iPhone or android handset. You’ll probably never need it and it’ll sit on your phone gathering dust but, it’s there just in case.
If you think you’ve identified an Asian hornet, it’s important you take a photograph to confirm your sighting. A confirmed sighting will invariably lead to an extensive response involving multiple human and other resources. The National Bee Unit and volunteers can only respond if the sighting is confirmed by a photograph.
You may be worried about getting close enough to take a photo but please be assured, a single Asian hornet is unlikely to hurt you. A whole colony near where you live however, is a different matter. That’s likely to be, well, a bit of a hornet’s nest!
If you see an Asian hornet, please report it! It’s in your interests and in the interests of everyone else.
I run between thirteen and twenty colonies, including Nucs, in five locations including my garden. Six locations if you count the New Forest where I take my largest and smallest colonies for heather honey (my favourite) or to fill the brood box with quality winter stores.
In most years this is more cost effective than making sugar syrup, though some years I have to both buy a Forest licence and sugar feed. One can’t win them all!
COVID 19 was a running theme this year, affecting my beekeeping in unexpected ways. Two of my biggest colonies are in a new location; a field next to a usually, reasonably quiet lane. With the exception of weekends, I can open the colonies with little likelihood of disturbing anyone. This year, from 07.30 to 21.00 there has been a constant flow of families walking, cycling, riding. All wanting the person in the bee suit to explain what’s going on!
January was the sixth warmest on record since 1884 – but like February and March, very wet making it difficult for me and the bees to get out for days at a time. The bees were flying well on 16 March with plenty of pollen going in. I got them on clean floors, brood boxes, queen excluders and crown boards on 1st April.
Early April was the hottest on record, and all my big colonies wanted to do was swarm! The constant flow of people in the Lane, albeit 50 yards away on the other side of a hedge, I found stressful when I was trying to manipulate such big colonies. They were on 10 frames of brood in mid April – with charged queen cells!
I divided the colony three ways. making two full colonies and one nuc but I still lost a swarm from one of the full colonies! I obviously missed a queen cell.
The original colony had four supers on by mid May and the queen was still laying well. The Nuc didn’t achieve a good laying queen, so I amalgamated with the split.
After May being the warmest and sunniest since 1929 the first two weeks of June were cold, with storm Christian coming in on 19 June. The lime yields in warm weather years the first two weeks of June for me- this is about 50% of my honey crop. By the end of June we had temperatures of 33 degrees. When I was spinning I found that the colony had managed a super of lime honey.
I added a super frame into the brood box on 20 June to do a drone cull, also adding a varroa board which I removed for counting 7 days later. The Beebase website advised that no action was required for nine months. On 13 July, I removed the drone frame – most of it capped- and did a full inspection.
On 2nd July, the colony went to the forest in unexpectedly cold and windy weather but still produced a full super of surplus heather honey for me. By early January, there was still so much heather honey in the brood box and in the super left on for the bees, that I could barely heft the hive.
By mid-January, they were bringing in a good amount of pollen, so fingers crossed. Large colonies will always produce more surplus honey than two small colonies. They achieved 80lbs of honey- very good for a colony which had been divided! And the split produced 35lbs.
I had a phone call from a member asking for a Nuc in late May. I took three frames and plenty of nurse bees from a colony that had produced well in 2018 and 2019 with a reliable calm queen.
The site is on the other side of Botley with afternoon sun and opposite an avenue of lime trees. By 11 July, they had produced a queen and drawn five frames of comb and there was eggs and larvae. ‘Good!’ I thought. ‘I’ll arrange to deliver them.’ I’ll just leave them another two weeks to ensure there is capped brood and a good amount of stores.
End of July arrives; there was a supercedure cell and the queen was laying poorly. I checked for varroa and carried on feeding.
By mid September, they were still only on 5 frames. Varroa didn’t seem to be a particular problem and the bees looked healthy. The new queen didn’t seem much better than the one they superceded. Certainly not good enough to pass on. In November, they hadn’t attempted to use the fondant. They were still flying on 16 January but I couldn’t see pollen going in. Still too early to open them up but I am itching to check!
Throughout the beekeeping year, its possible to accumulate quite a lot of wax from different sources. There’s the brace comb we remove during hive inspections, comb we’re replacing from brood boxes, cappings from honey processing and the wax we scrape from equipment when we’re cleaning it. Louise’s video shows a brilliant tip for collecting all these little bits which I confess, I’ve been wasting over the years.
It’s a good idea to store wax in sealed containers until you’re ready to process it. If left in the open, wax will attract the attention of bees and wasps and you run the risk of spreading disease between colonies. A large plastic box with a lid is ideal and if you have space enough, separate containers allow you to grade the wax according to purity. It just makes processing it easier for yourself.
It’s recommended beekeepers undertake shook swarms, Bailey comb changes (for weaker colonies) or replace a third of brood frames each year to prevent the spread of diseases which can be harboured in older comb. Brood wax tends to be darker and harder to process.
Wax from cappings is a by-product of the honey extraction process. It is usually light in colour, has little debris and is of the finest quality. It can be used for cosmetics and candles.
Once honey is harvested, the cappings can be returned to the hive from whence they came. The bees will remove honey residue leaving a very pure wax for harvesting. Spread the cappings out over the crown board.
Brace comb and scrapings from equipment
These tend to be fairly clean but scrapings are sometimes mixed with propolis.
Wax is a very valuable commodity. It is important that rendering does not waste it or damage the quality. Wax must always be heated over water as it is highly flammable.
The first video shows how to reclaim wax from equipment during cleaning and how to wash it in rain water.
Washing in rain water
Before you start rendering, soak your wax in cold rain water to get rid of as much honey and debris as possible. Louise’s video demonstrates wax being soaked multiple times to remove debris and to break it down.
Solar Wax Extractor
A solar extractor is the easiest and most environmentally-friendly way to start the rendering process. It uses the Sun’s heat to gently and slowly melt the wax producing the cleanest results.
The wax is placed under glass in a stainless steel box. As the wax melts, it runs into a reservoir via a filter. If the box gets hot enough, it will also sterilize frames for reuse. Take care; if the Sun is too hot you run the risk of overheating the wax, even setting it alight.
Louise’s second video shows how to boil wax over rain water, then at minute six, how to filter your wax through medical grade lint.
Always use rainwater. Tap water leaves a residue on the wax and can make it spongy.
Hot Water Extraction(rendering)
This is the most common method used by beekeepers. It’s cheap, easy to monitor and requires no specialist equipment. Use Stainless Steel utensils if possible as other materials may taint your wax.
Put the wax into the pot and bring to the boil. Leave on a rolling boil for ten minutes then allow the pot to cool slowly. The wax will float to the top of the pan and when fully cool, forms a cake which can be easily removed. Any debris still on the underside of the cake can be scraped off as shown in Louise’s video.
Further Rendering and Purifying
You may need to repeatedly render the wax to remove residual debris before finally filtering. Continue to boil wash until you achieve the desired quality. You can reduce the debris trapped in wax by cooling slowly.
Swapping wax for foundation
You can swap your washed wax for foundation at your beekeeping suppliers. They weigh it, take a proportion for processing and exchange your wax for new foundation. Meridian purchases wax from Kemble (their wax seems especially clean) although other suppliers like Thorne’s also operate similar services.
When you call, the beekeeper will ask you a few questions:
Have the bees settled into a cohesive ball?
After a while, the swarm will settle down into a relatively still ball of bees; maybe about the size of a rugby ball or watermelon but it could be bigger than that.
Does the swarm look like these pictures?
We’re sorry but we can only deal with honey bee swarms. We cannot remove wasps’ nests, hornets or bumble bees.
Is the swarm accessible?
Sometimes the bees settle on a low branch or fence and are easy to collect. They may settle in a tree or guttering and the beekeeper will need to discuss access with you.
How long has the swarm been there?
Do you mind us trimming your hedge or tree?
Strange question you may think! It’s not that we’re popping round to do the gardening but sometimes bees settle in foliage and the only way to remove them is to cut leaves and branches from shrubs or trees.
Have you got the kettle on?
Depending on what stage the swarm is at, the beekeeper may be at your house for sometime. We must allow all the bees that are due to join the swarm to do so, or you’ll be left with a group of demoralised, homeless bees. If you’d like to know more about swarming and why bees do it, click here.
Swarming is the honey bees’ natural method of reproduction. It’s their way of making two* families out of one. The swarm season generally takes place over a few weeks in late Spring but we do see early swarms and some take place later in Summer.
* Not every colony will produce a swarm each year and some very strong colonies will issue more than one.
Each honey bee colony has a queen. She lives for several years and despite her name, she does not rule. Her main duty is laying eggs providing generations of bees to ensure the survival of the colony.
The queen is bigger than the other bees. Notice the attendant bees around her; cleaning and feeding her.
The queen is mother to all the bees in her colony and can lay up to 1,500 eggs a day. During Spring, the population of the hive (or nest, if it’s wild honey bees) builds up strongly and quickly becomes over-crowded.
Most of the eggs the queen lays develop into female worker bees**. During the first half of a worker’s short life, she labours in the hive doing things like cleaning and feeding the young.
The second half of a worker’s life is dedicated to collecting pollen and nectar from flowers and trees, pollinating our crops and plants as she goes.
Notice the heavy load of bright-orange pollen she’s collected in the baskets on her legs.
** Most of the bees in a colony are female workers but up to 15% of the population are males called drones. The drones cannot gather food or do any work, their only purpose is reproduction.
Sometime in Spring, the honey bee family gets too big for its home. At that point, the queen leaves the hive* with many of the worker bees. After swarming through the air for a while, the bees gather temporarily in a cluster like this.
* The bees left behind in the hive raise a new queen and carry on with their work as usual. The hive also contains the food the colony has already collected and the brood (unhatched bees) the old queen produced before she left.
The cluster may remain in its temporary location for a short while or for several days. Typically though, it’ll be there for three to four hours. During that time, several hundred ‘scout’ bees will be searching round your neighbourhood for potential new permanent homes. Each scout comes back to the cluster and performs a dance to describe the possible new home she has found.
Using a democratic process which puts us humans to shame, the bees whittle down the possible choices until they all agree on the best one. At that point, the whole swarm takes off, bound for its new home.
So, should I just leave the bees to fly away then?
Well, you could do that! It’s certainly true, the gently buzzing ball of bees dangling in your Penstemons won’t be there for long, but they may be eying-up your shed or chimney as their next DesRes!
You can watch video clips showing the collection and hiving of a swarm by clicking here.
If you think you have a swarm of honey bees, here’s what to do:
You may have seen the bees arrive, swirling through the air accompanied by a deafening buzz, but they’re at their least defensive during a swarm and pose little or no threat to us.
OK you’ve made your point! Bees are so gentle during a swarm, that many beekeepers don’t wear protective clothing when collecting them but I’m not going to try licking them!
2. Don’t disturb them
If you leave the bees alone they are unlikely to sting. They will soon settle down and can be collected by a beekeeper. Don’t try to dislodge them (by spraying them with water or bashing them with a broom etc.), it won’t work and risks really buzzing them off!
3. Call a beekeeper!
Please click the link for the contact details of local swarm collectors. There are a few questions we will ask and these are shown here for your consideration. Swarm collectors
4. Enjoy your swarm!
Although the bees are unlikely to sting, watch from a safe distance. It’s a good idea to alert your neighbours (if applicable) and to close your windows to prevent stray bees getting into your house.
5. Have a cup of tea!
.. and wait for the beekeeper to arrive! If you’re interested, here’s some more information about swarms. Swarming
Beekeepers cannot deal with wasps, hornets or bumble bee nests. Only a honey bee swarm looks like the pictures you can see on this page.
Meridian member Catherine Pardoe wrote to Flick Drummond, MP for Meon Valley to express her concern about the recent authorisation of a Neonicotinoid treatment for sugar beet. Here is the response. It only serves to emphasis the need to keep up the pressure. Here is a link to the petition on the Government website Petition
Thank you for contacting me about the temporary and limited use of neonicotinoids on sugar beet crops in the UK.
The UK has granted temporary permission for this year for the use of thiamethoxam, alongside 10 other countries in Europe, to provide emergency protection against the viruses which attack sugar beet. These viruses significantly damaged the 2020 sugar beet crop, destroying around 25% of it. This temporary permission has been granted on the understanding that the beet industry will use the time to develop alternative and more holistic solutions.
However, the use of thiamethoxam will only be needed on a very small area of the UK’s farmland. Sugar beet is grown on 0.57% of the farmland in the UK, and not all of it will necessarily be treated. About half the UK’s demand for sugar is met by domestic production, and producing it domestically in controlled conditions is preferable to importing it cane sugar from overseas, potentially from countries which have much weaker environmental laws than we do. The UK’s sugar industry supports 9500 jobs in our economy. It is an important sector of agriculture and one which deserves support in transitioning to alternatives to neonicotinoids.
I will encourage Ministers to engage with the industry to ensure it is able to accomplish this. This is an exceptional case, and the general ban on the use of neonicotinoids remains in place. There is no risk of their use becoming regular, and our departure from the EU does not weaken our position on neonicotinoids or any other pesticide – indeed during our membership of the EU, it was usually the UK which led the way in driving up EU standards.
The use of any neonicotinoid would only be considered in an emergency and where there is substantial risk of harm to a crop. Through the Environment Bill and the Agriculture Act, the Government is ensuring that the high standards we have always pushed for are strengthened. I maintain close contact with our farmers in Meon Valley, who are responsible in their approach to the environment, and also with a range of wildlife and ecological organisations, including the Hampshire and Isle of Wight Wildlife Trust, whom I have regular discussions with.
I hope this information is useful to you, and hope that you are keeping safe and well.
Thank you again for getting in touch.
Flick Drummond Member of Parliament for Meon Valley
This page displays locally-produced honey and hive products. These are offered for sale by local beekeepers and their contact details can be found here. Most Meridian members have eaten or sold their 2021 crop (independent grocers have an insatiable appetite for local honey!) but keep an eye on this page, more will be offered in the coming months.
This honey is produced by the members of Meridian Beekeepers at our teaching apiary in Swanmore. Our bees forage on a wide range of local plants and trees including crops, garden and wildflowers. Although we have a few hives in the same place, the honey from each can be completely different as their bees collect nectar from different places. These 454g (1lb) jars are offered for sale at £8. They may be obtained from Louise, 01489 781155 firstname.lastname@example.org The proceeds go to Meridian Beekeepers.
Louise is one of Meridian’s longest standing members and has been keeping bees for many years. Most of her hives are in the Botley area and her bees work on the diverse forage that characterises our area; a mixture of garden flowers, trees and wildflowers from the fields and woodlands nearby. Contact Louise: 01489 781155 email@example.com
Louise also has a range of candles made from beeswax. Unlike any other type of candle, beeswax is non-toxic when it burns. They give off a naturally beautiful smell and burn brightly. They are the only candles to omit negative ions which purify the air and are hypo-allergenic, so beneficial to those who suffer from environmental allergies.